Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures
Finding a New Earth: Exoplanets and the Habitable Zone
May 11, 2016
Dr. Stephen Kane (San Francisco State University)
Listen (mp3 file, 39.5 MB)
Over 1500 new planetary systems have now been discovered, many of which include planets quite different from those in our own Solar System. A key step towards finding “Earth 2.0” will be to identify rocky planets that occupy the “Habitable Zone” of their stars. Dr. Kane describes what the idea of a Habitable Zone means and shows examples of planets that lie in their star’s Habitable Zone (even if the star is not like our Sun.)
How Things in the Universe Came About and How They Ended Up Within Us
April 6, 2016
Dr. Tom Abel (Stanford University)
Listen (mp3 file, 25.6 MB)
Dr. Abel takes us on an illustrated journey through the early stages of the universe, using the latest computer animations of how the first (massive) stars formed and died, and how stars built up the first galaxies. He also discusses how the early stars seeded the cosmos with the chemical elements necessary for life.
Einstein’s Blunder Undone: The Runaway Universe
Dr. Robert Kirshner (Harvard University)
Listen (mp3 file, 43.2 MB)
In the past 20 years, astronomers have shown that the universe is not only expanding, but speeding up. In this talk, Dr. Kirshner, who was in many ways the “godfather” of these investigations, discusses the methods used to discover cosmic acceleration and presents the evidence that we live in a Universe that is only 4% matter like the atoms of the periodic table.
In the Land of Enchantment: The Epic Story of the Cassini Mission to Saturn
Dr. Carolyn Porco (Imaging Team Leader for Cassini)
Listen (mp3 file, 46.9 MB)
Since 2004, Cassini has been exploring the giant planet Saturn, its magnificent ring system, and its intriguing moons. Dr. Porco shows us many of the magnificent mission images and explains the findings from both the main orbiter and the probe that landed on Titan, Saturn’s biggest moon. She also discusses the geysers on the moon Enceladus and what we have learned about the plumes that erupt.
100 Years of Einstein’s Relativity (And How it Underlies Our Modern Understanding of the Universe)
Dr. Jeffrey Bennett (University of Colorado)
Listen (mp3 file, 54.7 MB)
2015 marks the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s completion of his General Theory of Relativity, the comprehensive theory of space, time, and gravity. Dr. Bennett explains the basic ideas of Einstein’s work (both the special and general theories) in everyday language and shows how Einstein’s remarkable ideas are being confirmed today by astronomical observations. He concludes with four reasons why relativity should matter to everyone.
Now Appearing at a Dwarf Planet Near You: NASA’s Dawn Mission to the Asteroid Belt
Dr. Marc Rayman (Jet Propulsion Labs)
Listen (mp3 file, 44.3 MB)
Dr. Rayman, the Mission Director for the Dawn exploration of Vesta and Ceres, explains the unusual mission (the first to orbit two different bodies in the solar system), what it found at Vesta, and what it is going to do as it gets to Ceres, the largest asteroid and the first dwarf planet discovered. He also gives a behind-the-scenes tour of the Dawn launch and the ion propulsion that allows it to visit multiple targets.
The Sentinel Mission: Finding the Asteroid Headed for Earth
Dr. Ed Lu (Former NASA Astronaut; CEO of the Sentinel Mission)
Listen (mp3 file, 46.8 MB)
Asteroids, which hit our planet at least twice each year, are the only natural disaster for which we have a technological solution. We are all living with the threat of a 3-minute experience that could transform our lives and our planet forever. Scientists have found 10,000 Near-Earth Objects, yet there are an estimated one million in our inner solar system, and the vast majority of the threatening ones are still undiscovered. In this non-technical talk, Ed Lu describe the threat, and discusses the Sentinel Mission, an orbiting telescope to detect and track asteroids that cross Earth’s orbit.
Pluto on the Horizon: Anticipating our First Encounter with the Double Planet
Dr. Mark Showalter (SETI Institute)
Listen (mp3 file, 39.6 MB)
The more we learn about Pluto, the more interesting it becomes. In the last decade, four tiny moons have been discovered orbiting the central “binary planet,” which consists of Pluto and its large moon Charon. Pluto itself has a thin atmosphere and shows signs of seasonal changes. On July 14, 2015, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft will fly past Pluto and provide our first close-up look at these distant worlds. Dr. Showalter, a co-investigator on the mission, describes how he discovered two of the moons of Pluto, explains what we currently know about the Pluto system, and sets the scene for the exploration that is in store.
Images of the Infant Universe: The Latest Results from the Planck Satellite
Dr. Lloyd Knox (University of California, Davis)
Listen (mp3 file, 35.5 MB)
Professor Knox leads the U.S. team determining the basic characteristics of the cosmos from the data recently acquired by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite. He shows the detailed images of the sky obtained by Planck, pictures made from light that has been traveling our way for nearly 14 billion years, since the universe was only a few hundred thousand years old. He further explains how such images provide us with our best means of studying events mere fractions of a second after the Big Bang.
The Copernicus Complex: Are We Special in the Cosmos?
Dr. Caleb Scharf (Columbia University)
Listen (mp3 file, 28.3 MB)
Is humanity on Earth special or unexceptional? Extraordinary discoveries in astronomy and biology have revealed a universe filled with endlessly diverse planetary systems, and a picture of life as a phenomenon intimately linked with the most fundamental aspects of physics. But just where these discoveries will lead us is not yet clear. We may need to find a way to see past the mediocre status that Copernicus assigned to us 500 years ago. Dr. Scharf helps us to come to grips with the implications of some of the latest scientific research, from the microscopic to the cosmic.