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Women in Astronomy: An Introductory Resource Guide

by Andrew Fraknoi
(Foothill College & Astronomical Society of the Pacific)

© copyright 2010 by Andrew Fraknoi. All rights reserved. For permission to use, or to suggest additional materials, please contact the author at e-mail: fraknoi {at} fhda {dot} edu

This guide to English-language materials is not meant to be a comprehensive or scholarly introduction to the complex topic of the role of women in astronomy, but simply a resource for those educators and students who wish to explore the challenges and triumphs of women of the past and present.  It’s also an opportunity to get to know some of the key women who have overcome prejudice and exclusion to make significant contributions to our field. We include a representative selection of living women astronomers about whom non-technical material at the level of beginning students is easily available. Suggestions for additional non-technical listings are most welcome.

1. Written Resources on the General Topic of Women in Astronomy

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. Covers the lives and careers of 21 women astronomers, past and present, for teenagers and up.

Barlow, Nadine, et al. “Women in Astronomy: A Sampler of Issues and Ideas” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Jan/Feb. 1992, p. 27. Ten pages of quotes, commentary, problems, and solutions; part of a special issue of the magazine, devoted to the role of women in the field.

Ghez, Andrea & Cohen, Judith You Can Be a Woman Astronomer.  2006, Cascade Press. A picture book for children from grades 3 – 5.

James, C. “Edward and Mina” in Astronomy, July 2002, p. 46. Despite the title, this treats several women who worked at the Harvard Observatory.

Kidwell, Peggy “Women Astronomers in Britain” in Isis, Sep. 1984, vol. 75, p. 534.

Lankford, John “Science and Gender: Women in the American Astronomical Community” in his American Astronomy. 1997, U. of Chicago Press. 72-page sociological overview, with statistics.

Lankford, J. & Slavings, R. “Gender and Science: Women in Ameri­can Astronomy 1859-1940″ in Physics Today, Mar. 1990, vol. 43, p. 58.

Mack, P. “Straying from Their Orbits: Women in Astronomy in America” in G. Kass-Simon & P. Farnes, eds.  Women of Science. 1990, Indiana U. Press.

Mack, P. “Strategies and Compromises: Women in Astronomy at Harvard College Observatory” in Journal for the History of Astro­nomy, vol. 21, p. 65 (1990).

Rubin, Vera “Women’s Work: Women in Modern Astronomy” in Science 86, Jul/Aug. 1986, p. 58.

Spradley, J. “Women and the Stars” in The Physics Teacher, Sep. 1990, p. 372.

Urry, C. Megan, et al, eds. Women in Astronomy: Proceedings of a 1992 Workshop. 1993, Space Telescope Science Institute.

Warner, Deborah “Women Astronomers” in Natural History, May 1979, p. 12.

2. Web Resources on the General Topic of Women in Astronomy

American Astronomical Society Committee on the Status of Women: www.aas.org/~cswa/
A rich site with back issues of the valuable “Status” newsletter, a database of living women astronomers, legal resources, conference proceedings, and discussion of issues related to the role of professional women in the field.

Bibliography by Ruth Freitag: https://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/womenastro/womenastro-intro.html
A far more comprehensive and scholarly bibliography, organized by last name, of written articles on women in astronomy.  Ruth Freitag’s work was the early inspiration for the resource guide you are reading.

4000 Years of Women in Science: https://www.astr.ua.edu/4000WS/
Maintained by two women astronomers, this site includes brief information on women from many fields of science, not just astronomy.  Their site ends with the start of the 20th century, but see also the much shorter “Contributions of 20th Century Women to Physics” at: https://cwp.library.ucla.edu/

History of Women in Astronomy: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/history.html
The text and images from a slide set on women astronomers available from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.  Includes capsule biographies of women from Carolyn Herschel to Sidney Wolff.

She is an Astronomer: https://www.sheisanastronomer.org/
This relatively new site, a project of the 2009 International Year of Astronomy, has capsule biographies and useful links to discussions of issues that confront women in astronomy.

The Woman Astronomer: https://www.womanastronomer.com/
Debra Davis, a Colorado amateur astronomer, keeps this site and newsletter devoted to both amateurs and professionals.

Women of NASA: https://quest.nasa.gov/women/WON.html
Profiles of women who work for the US Space Agency, including a number of astronomers and astrobiologists.  The profiles include personal statements that can be quite moving and inspiring.

Women at Work: A Meeting on the Status of Women in Astronomy: https://www.stsci.edu/institute/conference/wia/
Proceedings of a pioneering 1992 meeting with useful local and national perspectives.

3. Material on Some Specific Women Astronomers of the Past

Annie Cannon

Cannon, Annie (1863-1941)

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Cannon.

Camp, Carole American Astronomers: Searchers and Wonderers. 1996, Enslow. One chapter of this book for teen readers is devoted to Canon’s life and work.

Emberlin, D. Science: Contributions of Women. 1977, Dillon Press. Includes a section on Cannon, pp. 7-27.

Greenstein, George “The Ladies of Observatory Hill” in American Scholar, Feb. 1993, p. 437. (Reprinted in his book Portraits of Discovery, 1998, John Wiley.)

Hearnshaw, John The Analysis of Starlight. 1986, Cambridge U. Press. See Chapter 5.

Jones, Bessie & Boyd, Lyle The Harvard College Observatory (1839-1919). 1971, Harvard U. Press. See especially Chapter 11.

Kidwell, P. “Three Women of American Astronomy” in American Scientist, May/June 1990, p. 244.

Welther, Barbara “Annie J. Cannon: Classifier of the Stars” in Mer­cury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Jan/Feb. 1984, p. 28.

Web Sites:

Annie Cannon Pages at Wellesley College: https://www.wellesley.edu/Astronomy/Annie/
Part of a student project, but with good local historical information.

Brief Biography at ScienceWomen Site: https://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/cannon.html

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/cannon.html

Video about Cannon’s life and work: https://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~alexg/ajc.html

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Agnes Clerke

Clerke, Agnes (1842-1907)

Bruck, Mary “Agnes Mary Clerke: Chronicler of Astronomy” in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Mar. 1994, p. 59. Lengthy profile.

Bruck, Mary Agnes Mary Clerke & the Rise of Astrophysics. 2002, Cambridge U. Press.

Cliver, Edward “Agnes Mary Clerke: Real Time Historian of Astronomy” in Astronomy & Geophysics (the magazine of the Royal Astronomical Society), June 2007, vol. 48, p. 3.25.

Lightman, B. “Constructing Victorian Heavens: Agnes Clerke and the “New Astronomy” in Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science. Gates, Barbara & Shteir, Ann, eds. 1997, U. of Wisconsin Press.

Weitzenhoffer, Kenneth “The Prolific Pen of Agnes Clerke” in Sky & Telescope, Sep. 1985, p. 211.

Web Sites:

Brief Biography from the Catholic Encyclopedia: https://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04051b.htm

1907 Obituary in the Times of London: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Times/1907/Obituary/Agnes_Mary_Clerke

Williamina Fleming
Courtesy Curator of Astronomical
Photographs at Harvard College
Observatory

Fleming, Williamina (1857-1911)

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Fleming.

Camp, Carole American Astronomers: Searchers and Wonderers. 1996, Enslow. One chapter of this book for teen readers is devoted to Fleming’s life and work.

Jones, Bessie & Boyd, Lyle The Harvard College Observatory (1839-1919). 1971, Harvard U. Press.  See several sections of this history for her contributions.

Spradley, J. “The Industrious Mrs. Fleming” in Astronomy, July 1990, p. 48.

Web Sites:

Brief biography at About.com: https://space.about.com/od/astronomerbiographies/a/wflemingbio.htm

Brief biography at Harvard Women Working site: https://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/people_fleming.html

Brief biography at Woman Astronomer site: https://www.womanastronomer.com/wfleming.htm

Caroline Herschel

Herschel, Caroline (1750-1848)

Alic, Margaret Hypatia’s Heritage: A History of Women in Science. 1986, Beacon Press. Chapter 9 has a good section on Herschel’s work.

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Herschel.

Belkora, Leila Minding the Heavens: The Story of Our Discovery of the Milky Way. 2003, IOP Publishing.  Chapter 4 is about the Herschels.

Brock, Claire The Comet Sweeper: Caroline Herschel’s Astronomical Ambition.  2008, Totem Books. A popular-level biography.

Higgins, F. Sweeper of the Skies: Caroline Herschel. 1967, Follett. For young people.

Hoskin, Michael “Astronomy’s Matriarch” in Sky &Telescope, May 2005, p. 42-46.

Hoskin, Michael, ed. Caroline Herschel’s Autobiographies. 2003, Science History Publications. Annotated versions of the autobiographies she wrote in her 70’s and 90’s.

Ogilvie, M. “Caroline Herschel’s Contributions to Astronomy” in Annals of Science, vol. 32, p. 149 (1975).

Web Sites:

Biography at MacTutor Site: https://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Herschel_Caroline.html

Brief biography at FemBio: https://www.fembio.org/english/biography.php/woman/biography/caroline-herschel

Maria Mitchell’s Reminiscences about Caroline Herschel from 1889: https://womenshistory.about.com/library/etext/bl_mitchell_herschel.htm

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/herschel.html

Brief Biography at the Space Telescope Science Institute:

https://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations//groundup/lesson/bios/herschel/index.php

Flanders, Tony “Following in Caroline Herschel’s Footsteps” (a guide to re-observing some of the objects she saw, for amateurs): https://www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/Caroline_Herschel_Objects.html

March 2007 BBC radio program about her: https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/03/2007_11_thu.shtml

Dorrit Hoffleit

Hoffleit, Dorrit (1907-2007)

Hoffleit, Dorrit “Some Glimpses from My Career” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Jan/Feb. 1992, p. 16.

Hoffleit, Dorrit Misfortunes as Blessings in Disguise. 2002, American Association of Variable Star Observers.  Her autobiography.  See excerpts and purchasing information at: https://www.aavso.org/store/st_dorrit.shtml

Levy, David “Astronomy’s First Lady” in Sky & Telescope, Feb. 1999, p. 89.

Philip, A.G. D., et al, eds. Anni Mirabiles: A Symposium Celebrating the 90th Birthday of Dorrit Hoffleit. 1999, L. Davis Press.

Web Sites:

Brief Biography at AAVSO site: https://www.aavso.org/aavso/membership/dhoffleit.shtml

Obituary by Virginia Trimble: https://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007BAAS…39.1067T

July 2006 Interview with Pamela Gay (video): https://www.starstryder.com/2007/04/11/dorrit-hoffleit-1907-2007/

Helen Sawyer Hogg
Copyright David Dunlap
Observatory, University of Toronto

Hogg, Helen Sawyer (1905-1993)

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Hogg.

Morrison, David & Fraknoi, Andrew “1983 ASP Award Winners: Klumpke Roberts Award to Helen Sawyer Hogg” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Nov/Dec. 1983, p. 185.

Webb, M. Helen Sawyer Hogg: A Lifetime of Stargazing. 1991, Copp Clark Pitman (Toronto).

Yost, E. Women of Modern Science. 1959, Greenwood Press. Pp. 31-47 are on Helen Hogg.

Web Sites:

Obituary from the Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of the Canada: https://www.astro.utoronto.ca/hsh/hshrasc.html

Obituary from the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific:  https://www.astro.utoronto.ca/hsh/hshpasp.html

Brief Biography at Science Women Site: https://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/hogg.html

Her career highlights summary at U. of Toronto: https://www.astro.utoronto.ca/hsh/hshhigh.html

Talk about her by Tom Bolton: https://www.astro.utoronto.ca/hsh/hshbln.html

Brief Biography at Canada Under the Stars: https://astro-canada.ca/_en/a2206.html

Transcript of an Interview with David DeVorkin at the Center for the History of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4679.html

Very brief autobiography at the Canada Science & Technology Museum: https://www.sciencetech.technomuses.ca/english/about/hallfame/u_i33_e.cfm

Margaret Huggins

Huggins, Margaret (1848-1916)

Becker, Barbara “Dispelling the Myth of the Able Assistant: Margaret and William Huggins at Work in the Tulse Hill Observatory” in Helena Pycior, et al. eds., Creative Couples in the Sciences. 1996, Rutgers University Press.

Belkora, Leila Minding the Heavens: The Story of Our Discovery of the Milky Way. 2003, IOP Publishing.  Chapter 6 is about the Hugginses.

Bruck, Mary Agnes Mary Clerke & the Rise of Astrophysics. 2002, Cambridge U. Press. See Chapter 5 and several other sections about Margaret Huggins’ work and relationship with Clerke.

Richardson, Robert “Lady Huggins” in The Star Lovers. 1967, Macmil­lan.

Web Sites:

Barbara Becker’s article: https://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/ExploringtheCosmos/week7b.html

Joe Tenn’s article on the Hugginses from the Griffith Observer: https://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/Huggins/HugginsesDrapers.pdf

Henrietta Leavitt

Leavitt, Henrietta (1868-1921)

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Leavitt.

Crowe, Michael Modern Theories of the Universe from Herschel to Hubble. 1994, Dover. See especially Chapter 6.

Ferguson, Kitty Measuring the Universe. 1999, Walker. Chronicle of how distances were found in the universe, with good discussions of contributions by individual astronomers.

Johnson, George Miss Leavitt’s Stars: The Untold Story of the Woman Who Discovered How to Measure the Universe. 2005, Atlas/Norton.

Jones, Bessie & Boyd, Lyle The Harvard College Observatory (1839-1919). 1971, Harvard U. Press. See Chapters 10 and 11.

Mitchell, H. “Henrietta Leavitt and the Cepheid Variables” in The Physics Teacher, Mar. 1976, vol. 14, p. 162.

Moore, Patrick Astronomers’ Stars. 1987, Norton. Chapter 10 concerns Leavitt’s work on Cepheids.

Richardson, Robert “Henrietta Leavitt” in The Star Lovers. 1967, Macmillan.

Singh, Simon Big Bang. 2004, Harper. Chapter 3 has a nice section on her life and work.

Web Sites:

Biography at AAVSO Site: https://hoa.aavso.org/posterswan.htm

Brief Biography at PBS Science Odyssey: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/baleav.html

Brief Biography at Woman Astronomer Site: https://www.womanastronomer.com/hleavitt.htm

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/leavitt.html

Antonia Maury

Maury, Antonia (1866-1952)

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Maury.

Hearnshaw, John The Analysis of Starlight. 1986, Cambridge U. Press. See Chapter 5.

Jones, Bessie & Boyd, Lyle The Harvard College Observatory (1839-1919). 1971, Harvard U. Press. See Chapter 5 and 11 on Maury’s work with spectra.

Web Sites:

Vassar Encyclopedia Entry: https://vcencyclopedia.vassar.edu/alumni/antonia-maury.html

Biography on the Woman Astronomer site: https://www.womanastronomer.com/amaury.htm

Biography at Answers.com: https://www.answers.com/topic/antonia-maury

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Maria Mitchell
Courtesy National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration /
Department of Commerce

Mitchell, Maria (1818-1889)

Albers, Henry, ed. Maria Mitchell: A Life in Journals and Letters. 2001, College Avenue Press.  Many excerpts from her writings, interspersed with biographical information.

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Mitchell.

Belserene, Emelia “Maria Mitchell: 19th Century Astronomer” in Astronomy Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 19, p. 133 (1986).

Berglund, Renee Maria Mitchell and the Sexing of Science. 2008, Beacon Press. Story of her life and of the importance of her work and fame for women’s issues.

Booker, Margaret Among the Stars: The Life of Maria Mitchell. 2007, Mill Hill Press.  A long biography for adult readers.

Camp, Carole American Astronomers: Searchers and Wonderers. 1996, Enslow. One chapter of this book for teen readers is devoted to Mitchell’s life and work.

Gormley, Beatrice  Maria Mitchell: The Soul of an Astronomer.  1995, Eerdmans Publishing. A book for youngsters.

Kidwell, P. “Three Women of American Astronomy” in American Scientist, May/June 1990, p. 244.

Kohlstedt, S. “Maria Mitchell and the Advancement of Women in Science” in P. Abir-Am &

Outram, D., eds. Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science 1789-1979. 1987, Rutgers U. Press.

McPherson, Stephanie Rooftop Astronomer: A Story about Maria Mitchell. 1990, CarolRhoda Books. For younger children.

Merriam, Eve, ed. Growing Up Female in America: Ten Lives. 1971, Doubleday. Has excerpts from Mitchell’s diary in the section about her (pp. 75-92).

Morgan, Helen Maria Mitchell: First Lady of American Astronomy. 1977, Westminster. For children.

Opalko, J. “Maria Mitchells’ Haunting Legacy” in Sky & Telescope, May 1992, p. 505.

Wright, Helen Sweeper in the Sky: The Life of Maria Mitchell. 1950, Macmillan. (Recently updated and reprinted by College Avenue Press.)

Web Sites:

Brief Biography at Distinguished Women Web Site: https://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/mitchell.html

Brief biography at the Maria Mitchell House Preservation Web Site: https://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/pwwmh/ma74.htm

Brief Biography at Women Working Web Site: https://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/people_mitchell.html

Harriet Townsend’s 1916 Reminiscences about her: https://womenshistory.about.com/library/etext/bl_townsend_mitchell.htm

An 1889 Letter from one of her Students at the Time of her Death: https://womenshistory.about.com/library/etext/bl_maria_mitchell.htm

An 1886 Profile: https://www.female-ancestors.com/daughters/mitchell.htm

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/mitchell.html

Her Entry in the Vassar Encylopedia: https://vcencyclopedia.vassar.edu/index.php/Maria_Mitchell

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin

Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia (1900-1979)

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Payne-Gaposchkin.

Bartusiak, Marcia “The Stuff of the Stars” in The Sciences, Sep/Oct. 1993, p. 34. Excerpt on her work from Bartusiak’s book, Through a Universe Darkly (1993, HarperCollins.)

Camp, Carole American Astronomers: Searchers and Wonderers. 1996, Enslow. One chapter of this book for teen readers is devoted to her life and work.

Gingerich, Owen “The Most Brilliant Phd Thesis Ever Written in Astronomy” in Phillip, A. & Koopman, R., eds. The Starry Universe: The Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin Centenary. 2001, L. Davis Press.  Article is on the web at: https://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/payne2.html

Greenstein, George “The Ladies of Observatory Hill” in American Scholar, Feb. 1993, p. 437. (Reprinted in his book Portraits of Discovery, 1998, John Wiley.)

Haramundanis, Katherine, ed. Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin: An Autobiography and Notes, 2nd ed. 1996, Cambridge U. Press.

Hearnshaw, John The Analysis of Starlight. 1986, Cambridge U. Press. See Chapter 2.

Hufbauer, Karl Exploring the Sun. 1991, Johns Hopkins. Chapter 3 discusses Payne’s work, among others.

Kidwell, Peggy “Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: Astronomy in the Family” in P. Abir-Am & Outram, D., eds. Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science 1789-1979. 1987, Rutgers U. Press.

Kidwell, Peggy “Three Women of American Astronomy” in American Scientist, May/June 1990, p. 244.

Smith, E. “Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin” in Physics Today, June 1980, p. 64.

Soter, Steven & Tyson, Neil, eds. Cosmic Horizons. 2001, New Press. See p. 75ff

Whitney, Charles “Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: An Astronomer’s Astrono­mer” in Sky & Telescope, Mar. 1980, p. 212.

Web Sites:

Brief Biography at Harvard Square Library Page: https://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/cpg.html

Two Excellent Articles on her Work and Life: https://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/payne2.html

Biographical Outline at UCLA Contributions of Women to Physics Page: https://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/Phase2/Payne-Gaposchkin,_Cecilia_Helena@861234567.html

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/cecilia.html

Dorothea Klumpke Roberts

Roberts, Dorothea Klumpke (1861-1942)

Aitken, Robert “Dorothea Klumpke Roberts” in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Dec. 1942, vol. 54, p. 217.

Bracher, Katherine “Dorothea Klumpke Roberts: A Forgotten Astronomer” in Mercury, Sep/Oct. 1981, p. 139.

Weitzenhoffer, Kenneth “The Triumph of Dorothea Klumpke” in Sky & Telescope, Aug. 1986, p. 109.

Web Sites:

Biography by Don Stone: https://www.aanc-astronomy.org/articles/dorothea.html

About her Pioneering Balloon Flights: https://leonids.arc.nasa.gov/Klumpke.html and https://www.whiteoaks.com/jane/leonidklumpke/dorothea.txt

Brief Biography on SMSO site: https://www.smso.net/Dorothea_Klumpke-Roberts

Sitterly, Charlotte Moore (1898-1990)

Martin, W. “Charlotte Sitterly” in Physics Today, vol. 44, p. 128 (Apr. 1991).

Morrison, Nancy & Fraknoi, Andrew “The Award of the 1990 Bruce Medal to Charlotte Moore Sitterly” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Nov/Dec. 1990, p. 179.

Sitterly, Charlotte Moore, “Collaboration with Henry Norris Russell over the Years,” in Philip, A.G. Davis & David H. DeVorkin, eds., In Memory of Henry Norris Russell. 1977, Dudley Observatory, pp. 27-41.

Tousey, R. “The Solar Spectrum from Fraunhofer to Skylab: An Appreciation of the Contributions of Charlotte Moore Sitterly” in Journal of the Optical Society of America, Series B, vol. 5, p. 2230 (Oct. 1988).

Web Sites:

Profile connected with the Bruce Medal: https://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/Sitterly/index.html

Biography on Answers.com: https://www.answers.com/topic/charlotte-e-moore

Brief Biography from the World Encyclopedia of Biography: https://www.bookrags.com/biography/charlotte-e-moore/

Obituary from Physics Today: https://ptonline.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=PHTOAD000044000004000128000001&idtype=cvips

Obituary from the Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society: https://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1991BAAS…23.1492R

Mary Somerville

Somerville, Mary (1780-1872)

Alic, Margaret Hypatia’s Heritage: A History of Women in Science. 1986, Beacon Press. Chapter 12 has a good section on her work.

Bruck, M. “Mary Somerville: Mathematician and Astronomer of Underused Talent” in Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Aug. 1996, vol. 106, p. 201.

Chapman, Allan The Victorian Amateur Astronomer. 1998, Wiley/Praxis.  See especially pp. 276ff.

Chapman, Allan Mary Somerville and the World of Science. 2004, Canopus Books.

Neeley, Kathryn Mary Somerville: Science, Illumination, and the Female Mind. 2001, Cambridge University Press.

Patterson, E. “Mary Somerville” in British Journal for the History of Science, vol. 4, p. 311 (1969). Long profile.

Weitzenhoffer, Kenneth “The Education of Mary Somerville” in Sky & Telescope, Feb. 1987, p. 138.

Web Sites:

Biography at About.com: https://space.about.com/od/astronomerbiographies/a/marysomerville.htm

Biography at Mac Tutor: https://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Somerville.html

From Biographies of Women Mathematicians: https://www.agnesscott.edu/lriddle/women/somer.htm

Bruck’s Article (see above) on line: https://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1996JBAA..106..201B

Brief Biography at Women in Math: https://www.mathnews.uwaterloo.ca/BestOf/WomenInMath7105.html

BBC Radio Program about her, with Allan Chapman (audio): https://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/thematerialworld_20040826.shtml

Interesting essay by Paula Gould from Science, wondering if her life story (and Caroline Herschel’s) has been whitewashed by history: https://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;296/5574/1805

Transcript of a brief broadcast about her on Australian radio: https://www.abc.net.au/rn/science/ockham/stories/s306256.htm

Beatrice Tinsley

Tinsley, Beatrice (1941-1981)

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Tinsley.

Eisberg, Joann “Making a Science of Observational Cosmology: The Cautious Optimism of Beatrice Tinsley” in Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol. 32, p. 264 (2001).

Faber, Sandra  “Beatrice Tinsley” in Physics Today, vol. 34, p. 110 (Sept. 1981).

Hill, Edward My Daughter Beatrice. 1986, American Physical Society.

Larson, R. & Stryker, L. “Beatrice Hill Tinsley” in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 23, p. 162 (1982).

Overbye, Dennis Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos. 1992, HarperCollins. An introduction to modern cosmology; material on Tinsley is in Chapter 10.

Trimble, Virginia “Beatrice Tinsley” in Visit to a Small Universe. 1992, American Institute of Physics Press.

Web Sites:

Biography by Virginia Trimble (pdf file): https://www.ias.ac.in/womeninscience/Tinsley.pdf

Biography at New Zealand Edge page: https://www.nzedge.com/heroes/tinsley.html

Biography by Michele Nichols on Carleton College site: https://www.carleton.edu/departments/PHAS/astro/pages/michele/tinsley.html

Paper about her life and work by Margaret Turner: https://freepages.misc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mturner/women/bmt.htm

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/tinsley.html

Eisberg article (see above): https://www.shpltd.co.uk/eisberg-tinsley.pdf

4. Material on Some Specific Living Astronomers who are Women

Jocelyn Bell Burnell

Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (1943- )

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Bell Burnell.

Bell Burnell, Jocelyn “Little Green Men, White Dwarfs, or What?” in Sky & Telescope, Mar. 1978, p. 218.

Bell Brunell, Jocelyn “So Few Pulsars, So Few Females” in Science, 23 April 2004, vol. 304. no. 5670, p. 489. (On line at: https://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/304/5670/489)

Greenstein, George “Neutron Stars and the Discovery of Pulsars” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Mar/Apr. 1985, p. 34 and May/June 1985, p. 66.

Reed G. “The Discovery of Pulsars: Was Credit Given Where it was Due?” in Astronomy, Dec. 1983, p. 24.

Wade, N. “Discovery of Pulsars: A Graduate Student’s Story” in Science, Aug. 1, 1975, p. 358.

Web Sites:

Citation and Interview when she was Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society: https://royalsociety.org/page.asp?tip=1&id=1481

Interview on the BBC Program Belief (both about her religious view and her science): https://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/programmes/belief/scripts/jocelyn_bell_burnell.html

Her talk on Astronomy and Poetry at the University of Bath: https://www.podcastdirectory.com/podshows/993144

Royal Institution (Public) Discourse in 1997 (“Tick Tick Tick Pulsating Star”) by Bell Burnell: https://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/69 (a video)

Brief biography at the Contributions of Women to Physics Site: https://cwp.library.ucla.edu/Phase2/Burnell,_Jocelyn_Bell@841234567.html

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/burnell.html

Brief Bio at Project NOVA site from California State U. at Pomona: https://www.csupomona.edu/~nova/scientists/articles/burn.html

1977 After-dinner Speech about her Discovery of Pulsars (text): https://www.bigear.org/vol1no1/burnell.htm

Encyclopedia of World Biography Entry: https://www.gale.cengage.com/free_resources/whm/bio/bellburnell_s.htm

Margaret Burbidge

Burbidge, Margaret (1919- )

Arp, Halton & Fraknoi, Andrew “The Award of the 1982 Bruce Medal to Margaret Burbidge” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Sep/Oct. 1982, p. 154.

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Burbidge.

Burbidge, Margaret “Watcher of the Skies” in Annual Reviews of Astronomy & Astrophysics, 1994, vol. 32, p. 1 (An auto-biographical article in a technical volume; available on line at: https://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?bibcode=1994ARA%26A..32….1B  or https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146%2Fannurev.aa.32.090194.000245 )

Croswell, Ken The Alchemy of the Heavens: Searching for Meaning in the Milky Way. 1995, Doubleday. See Chapter 9.

Reed, J. “A Great Woman Astronomer Leaves England Again” in Smithsonian, Jan. 1974, p. 34.

Rubin, Vera “Margaret Burbidge: AAAS President-Elect” in Science, vol. 211, p. 915 (Feb. 27, 1981). On the web at: https://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/articles/burbidge-rubin.html

“The Stargazer” in Time magazine, Mar. 20, 1972, p. 38.

Web Sites:

Bruce Medal Profile: https://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/BurbidgeM/

Interview with David DeVorkin at the Center for the History of Physics from 1978: https://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/25487.html

Short bio at Contributions of Women to Physics site: https://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/Phase2/Burbidge,_E._Margaret@932123456.html

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/burbidge.html

Sandra Faber

Faber, Sandra (1944- )

Dressler, Alan Voyage to the Great Attractor. 1994, Knopf. Story of how we learned to explore the large-scale structure of the realm of the galaxies, focusing on the astronomers who call themselves the “Seven Samurai” (of which Faber is one).

Lemonick, Michael The Light at the Edge of the Universe. 1993, Villard/Random House. See especially Chapter 6.

Lightman, Alan & Brawer, Roberta “Interview with Sandra Faber” in Ori­gins. 1990, Harvard U. Press.

Web Sites:

Her Web Page at Lick Observatory: https://www.ucolick.org/~board/faculty/faber.html

Interview with Patrick McCray for the Center for the History of Physics 2002: https://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/25489.html

Release on her Bower Award: https://news.ucsc.edu/2009/02/2739.html

Bio Page at the Contribution of Women to Physics Site at UCLA: https://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/Phase2/Faber,_Sandra_Moore@931234567.html

1995 Autobiographical Sketch: https://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/articles/faber.htm

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set:  https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/faber.html

Debra Fischer

Fischer, Debra (1953- )

Naeye, Robert “Unlocking New Worlds” in Astronomy, Nov. 2002, p. 48. A profile and discussion of her work.

Web Sites:

Her web site at San Francisco State University: https://www.physics.sfsu.edu/~fischer/

The May 2009 article about her from Seed Magazine: https://seedmagazine.com/content/article/the_long_shot/

Interview at the Woman Astronomer site: https://www.womanastronomer.com/dfischer.htm

Her talk on Extra-solar Planets in San Francisco May 2008 (video): https://fora.tv/2008/05/15/The_Search_for_a_World_Like_Our_Own_Imagine_Earth_20

Her article about finding planets in Mercury magazine: https://www.astrosociety.org/pubs/mercury/0004/fischer.html

Wendy Freedman

Freedman, Wendy (1957- )

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Freedman.

Ferguson, Kitty Measuring the Universe. 1999, Walker. Chronicle of how distances were found in the universe, with good discussions of contributions by individual astronomers.

Stephens, Sally “Hubble Warrior” in Astronomy, March 2000, p. 52. Profile of her work trying to find the Hubble constant and other cosmological parameters.

Web Sites:

Interview from April 2004, at the National Academy of Sciences (about her life and work): https://www.nasonline.org/site/PageServer?pagename=INTERVIEWS_Wendy_Freedman

Brief Biography at Women Astronomer site: https://www.womenastronomers.com/star.php?Id=3

Videos at Closer to Truth Web Site: https://www.closertotruth.com/participant/Wendy-Freedman/35

News Release about the Award of the 2009 Gruber Prize: https://www.gruberprizes.org/GruberPrizes/Cosmology_PressRelease.php?awardid=49

Margaret Geller

Geller, Margaret (1947- )

Ames, Joan. Mastery: Interviews with 30 Remarkable People. 1997, Rudra Press.

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Geller.

Chaikin, Andrew “Surveyor of the Universe” in Air & Space, Aug./Sept. 1991; vol. 6, p. 84.

Geller, Margaret. “The Big Picture” in Natural History, Feb. 2000, vol. 109, p. 74.

Goldsmith, Donald The Astronomers. 1991, St. Martin’s Press. The chapter entitled “Mapping the Universe” profiles Geller’s life and work.

Greenstein, George Portraits of Discovery. 1998, John Wiley. Chapter 8 of this collection of biographical articles is about Margaret Geller and John Huchra.

Lawler, Andrew “Margaret Geller: Battling Discrimination or Bureaucracy?” in Science, 12 November 1999; vol. 286. no. 5443, p. 1277.

Lemonick, Michael The Light at the Edge of the Universe. 1993, Villard/Random House. See especially Chapter 3.

Lightman, Alan & Brawer, Roberta “Interview with Margaret Geller” in Ori­gins. 1990, Harvard U. Press.

Overbye, Dennis Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos. 1992, HarperCollins. See Chapter 19.

Wiley, John “Margaret Geller: Star Mapper” in Astronomy, Nov. 2000; vol. 28. p. 104.

Web Sites:

Her web page at Smithsonian: https://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~mjg/

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set:  https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/geller.html

Her 1995 Phi Beta Kappa Address at Harvard: https://gos.sbc.edu/g/geller.html

Margaret Geller Giving a Talk on “When Galaxies Collide” (2004, video): https://streamer.perimeterinstitute.ca/Flash/5071fa3c-293a-4256-8003-20cfb88167ad/index.html

Her poignant essay on Science and Society, “Black Ribbon” from Science Magazine (1998): https://www.scienceonline.org/cgi/content/full/281/5381/1278

Andrea Ghez

Ghez, Andrea (1965- )

Freedman, David “The Mysterious Middle of the Milky Way” in Discover Magazine, Nov. 1998. Features her work.

Ghez, Andrea & Cohen, Judith You Can Be a Woman Astronomer.  2006, Cascade Press. A picture book for children from grades 3 – 5, includes a discussion of her own beginnings.

Web Sites:

Her web page at UCLA: https://www.astro.ucla.edu/~ghez/

Her 2003 UCLA Faculty Lecture on “Unveiling the Black Hole at the Center of the Galaxy”: https://www.webcast.ucla.edu/Webcast/FRL/Ghez/

Her 2009 Lecture at TED: https://www.ted.com/talks/andrea_ghez_the_hunt_for_a_supermassive_black_hole.html

Brief story about her on “My Hero” web page: https://www.myhero.com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=A_M_Ghez_06

Her MacArthur Prize page: https://www.macfound.org/site/c.lkLXJ8MQKrH/b.4537259/k.98D6/Andrea_Ghez.htm

Interview with her for the PBS TV Show NOVA in 2006: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/blackhole/explorer.html

Interview for ABC’s “Science Show”: https://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2006/1652905.htm

Brief Biography on the Poster Project Site: https://www.math.sunysb.edu/posterproject/biographies/ghez.html

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Heidi Hammel

Hammel, Heidi (1960- )

Bortz, Fred: Beyond Jupiter: The Story of Planetary Astronomer Heidi Hammel (2005, Franklin Watts/Scholastic & Joseph Henry Press). A colorful profile of Hammel as a person and scientists, written for teenagers (but enjoyable reading for everyone.)

Flanagan, R. “Observer of the Gas Giants” in Astronomy, July 1997, p. 50.

Web Sites:

Her web page at the Space Science Institute: https://www.spacescience.org/about_ssi/staff/hammel.html

Brief answer to what made her become an astronomer and a Field Journal at the NASA Quest Site: https://quest.arc.nasa.gov/hst/people/hammel.html

Her answers to frequently asked questions at the site for the kids’ book about her: https://www.fredbortz.com/HammelBio/AstroFAQ.htm

An hour interview of Minnesota Public Radio about the successor telescope to the Hubble and her work: https://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2008/03/05/midmorning2/

Some reminiscences by her brother: https://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1373765

Interview about her involvement in education: https://ssibroker.colorado.edu/Rolesmatrix/matrix/element27/hammel_profile.pdf

Her two appearances on the Planetary Society radio program: https://www.planetary.org/radio/archive/guest/173/

Interview in Newsweek, Nov. 26, 2007: https://www.newsweek.com/id/70975

Jane Luu

Luu, Jane (1963- )

Bartusiak, Marcia “The Remarkable Odyssey of Jane Luu” in Astronomy, Feb. 1996, p. 46.

Davies, John Beyond Pluto: Exploring the Outer Limits of the Solar System. Chapter 4 features Luu’s life and work.

Flamsteed, Sam “”Where Comets Come from – Hubble Space Telescope Provides Evidence for Kuiper Belt” in Discover, Nov. 1995, p.  . Includes some about her life and early work.

Web Sites:

Interview from 2003 (with a lot of biographical information) at Imagiverse Site: https://www.imagiverse.org/interviews/janeluu/jane_luu_21_03_03.htm

Carolyn Porco

Porco, Carolyn  (1953- )

Dowrett, A. “Science and Spirituality: An Interview with Carolyn Porco” in The Humanist, Jan/Feb. 2008.

Web Sites:

Her biography at Diamond Sky Productions: https://diamondskyproductions.com/CarolynPorco.php

Her biography on the Edge website: https://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/bios/porco.html

1999 Profile in the New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/081799sci-nasa-cassini-2.html

2009 Profile in the New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/22/science/space/22prof.html?_r=1

Her talk to Pop!Tech in 2005 (podcast): https://itc.conversationsnetwork.org/shows/detail767.html#

Her talk to the TED Conference (Mar. 2007): https://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/carolyn_porco_flies_us_to_saturn.html

Her talk to Pangea Day 2008: https://www.pangeaday.org/filmDetail.php?id=24

Nancy Roman

Roman, Nancy (1925- )

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Roman.

Croswell, Ken The Alchemy of the Heavens: Searching for Meaning in the Milky Way. 1995, Doubleday. See Chapter 8.

Silver, Lily “Dr. Nancy G. Roman, the Astronomer’s Astronomer” in Profiles in Success: 40 Lives of Achievement. 1965, Fountainhead Publishers.

Web Sites:

Brief Autobiographical Sketches at NASA Quest: https://quest.arc.nasa.gov/people/bios/women/nr.html

Her Resume on line: https://www.mc.cc.md.us/Departments/planet/Nancy/Nancy.htm

An excerpt from Armstrong’s book section about her: https://www.womenastronomers.com/roman.htm

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set:  https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/roman.html

Interview with David DeVorkin at the Center for the History of Physics from 1980:  https://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4846.html

Vera Rubin

Rubin, Vera (1928- )

Bartusiak, Marcia “The Woman Who Spins the Stars” in Discover, Oct. 1990, p. 88. See also Bartusiak’s book, Through a Universe Darkly, 1993, HarperCollins, p. 202ff.

Boslaugh, John Masters of Time: Cosmology at the End of Innocence. 1992, Addison-Wesley. Chapter 2 features Rubin’s life and work.

Camp, Carole American Astronomers: Searchers and Wonderers. 1996, Enslow. One chapter of this book for teen readers is devoted to Rubin’s life and work.

Goldsmith, Donald The Astronomers.  1991, St. Martins. Chapter 2 profiles Vera Rubin.

Irion, Robert “Vera Rubin Profile: The Bright Face Behind the Dark Sides of Galaxies” in Science, vol. 295, no. 5557, p. 960 (Feb. 8, 2002).

Isbell, Douglas & Strom, Stephen “A Talk with Vera Rubin” in Observatories of the Southwest. 2009, U. of Arizona Press.

Lightman, Alan & Brawer, Roberta “Interview with Vera Rubin” in Ori­gins. 1990, Harvard U. Press.

Overbye, Dennis Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos. 1992, HarperCollins. Chapter 17 focuses on her work.

Rubin, Vera “Women’s Work: Women in Modern Astronomy” in Science 86, Jul/Aug. 1986, p. 58.

Rubin, Vera Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters. 1997, American Institute of Physics Press. A collection of her articles, including several personal reminiscences.

Rubin, Vera “Seeing Dark Matter in the Andromeda Galaxy” in Physics Today, Dec. 2006, vol. 59, no. 12, p. 8. (More technical reminiscences.)

Schomaker, William “Interview with Vera Rubin” (very brief) in Astronomy, June 2003, p. 18.

Soter, Steven & Tyson, Neil, eds. Cosmic Horizons. 2001, New Press. See p. 94ff

Stephens, Sally “Vera Rubin: An Unconventional Career” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Jan/Feb. 1992, p. 38. An interview.

Tucker, Wallace & Karen The Dark Matter. 1988, Morrow. See Chapter 6.

Web Sites:

Brief Biography at the Carnegie Institution: https://www.dtm.ciw.edu/content/view/122/168/

Joe Tenn’s Bruce Medalist Profile of her: https://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/BruceMedalists/Rubin/index.html

Brief Biography at the Lake Afton Observatory Women in Astronomy Page: https://webs.wichita.edu/lapo/vr.htm

Excerpt from the book Cosmic Horizons, at the American Museum of Natural History site, about her work: https://www.amnh.org/education/resources//rfl/web/essaybooks/cosmic/p_rubin.html

2002 Interview in Discover Magazine: https://discovermagazine.com/2002/jun/breakdialogue

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set:  https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/rubin.html

“Telling Stories about the Universe”, her 2003 public lecture at Princeton (video): https://www.listeningtowords.com/lecture.php?id=319

Carolyn Shoemaker

Shoemaker, Carolyn (1929- )

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Shoemaker.

Levy, David “Star Trails: Carolyn Shoemaker” in Sky & Telescope, June 1991, p. 658.

Levy, David Shoemaker by Levy: The Man who Made an Impact. 2000, Princeton U. Press. Biography of Eugene Shoemaker, but with much information about Carolyn’s work.

Preston, Richard First Light. 1987, Atlantic Monthly Press. Section 2 is a profile of the Shoemakers.

Reeves, R. “Interview with Gene and Carolyn Shoemaker: Meteor Crater to Palomar” in Astronomy, June 1993, p. 13.

Shoemaker, Carolyn “Ups and Downs in Planetary Astronomy” in Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science, vol. 27, p. 1 (1999).  Reminiscences about her career.

Web Sites:

Biography at USGS Page: https://astrogeology.usgs.gov/About/People/CarolynShoemaker/

Biography on the Universe Today Page:

https://www.universetoday.com/html/articles/2001-1211a.html

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set:  https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/shoemaker.html

1994 Article from New Scientist, with history and reactions to the discover of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_shoemaker_a.htm

Brief Biography at the Harcourt School Site: https://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/biographies_science/shoemaker/

Excerpt from the Book “Shoemaker by Levy” (see above) About Discovering Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: https://pup.princeton.edu/chapters/s6909.html

Her 1998 Essay from Science Magazine on Space Exploration (with some thoughts about her own life and work): https://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/282/5394/1637

Ellen Stofan

Stofan, Ellen

Stofan, E. “Venus: The Way We Might Have Been” in Stern, S.A., ed. Our Worlds: The Magnetism and Thrill of Planetary Exploration. 1999, Cambridge U. Press; pp. 31-45. Combines a discussion of the exploration of Venus with autobiographical information on her development as a scientist.

Web Sites:

Appearance on Planetary Society web radio show discussing lakes on Titan: https://www.planetary.org/radio/show/00000220/

JPL Podcast with Slides on YouTube (about lakes on Titan): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PP5hSbwHXQ  (Transcript at: https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/podcasting/jpl-cassini-20070103.html )

Article on her work at the William & Mary Web Site: https://www.wm.edu/as/geology/features/the-lakes-of-titan.php

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Jill Tarter

Tarter, Jill (1944- )

Armstrong, Mabel Women Astronomers: Reaching for the Stars. 2008, Stone Pine Press. This book for teens has a chapter on Tarter.

Drake, Frank & Sobel, Dava Is Anyone Out There?  1992, Delacorte/Bantam. Page 152 ff. Has a number of discussions of Tarter’s life and work, especially in Chapters 7 & 10.

Ferron, Karri “Brief Interview with Jill Tarter” in Astronomy, Dec. 2009, p. 10.

Jackson, Ellen Looking for Life in the Universe: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. 2005, Houghton Mifflin.  A profile of Tarter and her work for young people in grades 4-8.

Lubick, N. “An Ear to the Stars” in Scientific American, Nov. 2002, p. 42. A brief profile of Tarter and her SETI work.

Swift, David “Interview with Jill Tarter” in SETI Pioneers. 1990, U. of Arizona Press.

Web Sites:

Her web page at the SETI Institute: https://www.seti.org/about-us/people/staff/tarter-jill.php

Profile in Association for Women in Science Magazine 2005: https://www.seti.org/pdfs/awis%20-%20tarter.pdf

Brief Profile on CNN Site: https://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/americas/04/15/tarter/index.html

Interview on the KQED Quest Program site 2008 (video): https://www.kqed.org/quest/television/interview-with-astronomer-jill-tarter–part-i-web-only

Profile at Cornell University alumni site (1997): https://www.news.cornell.edu/Chronicle/97/6.26.97/Tarter.html

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set:  https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/tarter.html

Her lecture at the Long-Now Foundation on “The Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence: Necessarily a Long-term Strategy” (2004 audio): https://www.listeningtowords.com/person.php?id=37

Her lecture on the Allen Telescope Array and SETI at the Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures (2008 audio): https://www.astrosociety.org/education/podcast/index.html

Her TED Prize page and lecture: https://www.seti.org/ted and https://www.tedprize.org/jill-tarter/

Virginia Trimble

Trimble, Virginia

Trimble, Virginia Visit to a Small Universe. 1992, American Institute of Physics Press. A collection of her articles, including several that bear on her own life and work.

Web Sites:

Her home page at U. of California, Irvine: https://www.ps.uci.edu/physics/trimble.html

Brief profile at the American Institute of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history/historymatters/trimble.htm

Brief profile at Johns Hopkins: https://www.jhuapl.edu/techdigest/td2201/trimble.pdf

Interview on the “Science and Society” podcast: https://www.scienceandsociety.net/audio/trimble.mp3

Transcript of a brief interview about telescopes (with a bit about her life) on ABC: https://www.abc.net.au/rn/scienceshow/stories/2000/148938.htm

Her “Top 10” lists for the astronomy of the past and future: https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200010/astronomy.cfm

Sidney Wolff

Wolff, Sidney (1941- )

Waldrop, Mitchell “New Director Named for Kitt Peak” in Science, vol. 224, p. 265 (Apr. 20, 1984).

Wolff, Sidney “A Search for Aperture: A Selective History of Telescopes” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Sep/Oct. 1985, p. 139.

Web Sites:

Announcement of her AAS Education Prize: https://www.noao.edu/outreach/press/pr06/pr0605.html

Brief Biography from the ASP’s Women in Astronomy Slide Set: https://astro.berkeley.edu/~gmarcy/women/wolff.html

Her speech for the 100th anniversary of the American Astronomical Society (pdf file): https://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v32n2/wolff.pdf

Oral History Interview at the American Institute of Physics: https://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/23363_1.html

5. (A Few) Articles or Books about Other Individual Women Astronomers

Baliunas, Sallie: see Flamsteed, Sam “Star Spots: The Work of Sallie Baliunas” in Discover, Dec. 1991, p. 29.

Boesgaard, Ann “One Woman’s Journey” in Mercury (the magazine of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific), Jan/Feb. 1992, p. 19.

Dupree, Andrea: Brief Interview in Astronomy, Sep. 2009, p. 10.

Conklin, Nan Dieter Two Paths to Heaven’s Gate. 2006, NRAO Archives, 520 Edgemont Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22903.  A memoir by a pioneering radio astronomer.

Donahue, Megan “Clusters of Galaxies and the Fate of the Universe (or How to be a Cosmologist without Really Trying” in Stern, S. Alan, ed. Our Universe: The Thrill of Extragalactic Exploration as Told by Leading Experts. 2001, Cambridge U. Press; pp. 107-126. Combines a discussion of her work and her development as a scientist.

Hu, Esther “Looking Back in Time: Searching for the Most Distant Galaxies” in Stern, S. Alan, ed. Our Universe: The Thrill of Extragalactic Exploration as Told by Leading Experts. 2001, Cambridge U. Press; pp. 23-36. Combines a discussion of her work and her development as a scientist.

Kinney, Anne: see Schomaker, W. “NASA’s Visionary” in Astronomy, Jan. 2005, p. 48 Interview and profile.

Sargent, Anneila: see Goldsmith, Donald The Astronomers. 1991, St. Martin’s Press. See Chapter 12 of this book, which focuses on the work of a few astronomers at the frontiers of science.